thinks otherwise: "[They] have been found to offer no proven environmental advantage over conventional plastics, while their rapid fragmentation into microplastics cause concerns." Work is now underway to restrict their use in the EU. But the problems don't end there. SOMETIMES MORE HARMFUL THAN PLASTIC Designers and brands are just as confused as their customers. An investigation in the UK recently by FoodserviceFootprint.com found that the country's largest pub chains have been left bamboozled after switching from plastic to compostable straws. In some cases, the straws made from polylactic acid (PLA) – a plastic substitute derived from plants that will biodegrade within three months in a controlled composting environment – were ending up in landfills where they are actually more harmful than plastic. Even the association representing the bioplastics sector admits that explaining its wares is tricky: "It's hard to communicate all pros and cons of the very different bioplastics in an appropriate way," suggests Hasso von Pogrell, managing director of European Bioplastics. A clear definition would certainly help. To date, the term bioplastics is loosely used to refer to plastics that are biobased, biodegradable, or both. Biobased means they are made at least in part from renewable materials derived from plants (like corn or cellulose) instead of fossil resources, according to the European Bioplastics website. Some can also be biodegradable in industrial composting facilities (there is a European Photo: European Commission Article continues on page 6 04 — BUSINESS IN EUROPE MAGAZINE 2018
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